By Joseph Cruz
This re-creation of the vintage modern Theories of data has been considerably up to date to incorporate analyses of the new literature in epistemology. instead of simply making mild amendments to the 1st variation, Pollock and Cruz have undertaken a groundbreaking review of twentieth-century epistemology. This booklet is either a sophisticated textbook delivering conventional discussions of foundationalism, coherentism, and reliabilism and a close treatise at the authors' personal distinct view, direct realism.
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Extra resources for Contemporary Theories of Knowledge
1 Phenomenalism Although we have rejected the idea that the only reasons are conclusive reasons, that supposition played an important historical role in the problem of perception. On that supposition, we could only explain perceptual knowledge by finding logical entailments between the way things look and the way they are. To get from an objectÕs looking red to its being red we would have to find some further premise which, when conjoined with the fact that the object looks red to us, entails that the object is red.
Our simplest beliefs about the world are in direct response to sensory input, and then we reason from those simple beliefs to more complicated beliefs (for example, inductive generalizations) that cannot be acquired on the basis of single instances of sense perception. This psychological picture of belief formation suggests a parallel philosophical account of epistemic justification according to which those simple beliefs resulting directly from sense perception form an epistemological foundation and all other beliefs must be justified ultimately by appeal to these epistemologically basic beliefs.
But phenomenalists had some ingenious proposals to make in this connection. The most sophisticated phenomenalist analysis was that proposed by C. I. Lewis (1946). His suggestion was that Òx is redÓ can be analyzed as a conjunction of possibly 40. See, for example: Rudolf Carnap (1967), C. I. Lewis (1946), and Nelson Goodman (1951). 40 CHAPTER TWO infinitely many conditionals of the form Òif I were to do A in circumstances C then I would be appeared to RÕlyÓ, where R describes some way of being appeared to.
Contemporary Theories of Knowledge by Joseph Cruz