By Fredrick C. Harris
The alterations in black activism because the civil rights circulation may be characterised by means of a tug-of-war among black political energy on one facet and monetary stipulations in black groups at the different in line with this learn. As blacks achieve larger entry and impact in the political method, black participation in political actions raises whereas downward turns within the monetary stipulations of black groups produce much less civic involvement in black groups. studying alterations in black activism from the early Nineteen Seventies to the Nineteen Nineties, this tug-of-war demonstrates that the hunt for black political empowerment and the realities of monetary and social lifestyles act as countervailing forces.
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Additional resources for Countervailing Forces in African-American Civic Activism, 1973-1994
Since the civil rights movement, the march toward progress has yielded mixed results. While there have been tremendous gains in black political empowerment over the years, the economic and social progress of African Americans has been as bouncy as McFadden and Whitehead’s base line. Though it is true, as Jennifer Hochschild notes, that “African-Americans are in many, but not all, ways better than their forebears were” (1995, 40), students of black civic and political life may be overlooking important economic and social forces that adversely affect blacks’ full participation in the American polity.
Black unemployment reached nearly 15 percent during the recession year of 1975 and gradually declined to 12 percent by the end of the decade. But alreadyhigh levels of black unemployment were on a decline, and by the early 1980s, black unemployment exceeded the rate that occured in the recession of the mid-1970s. By 1981, black unemployment exceeded 15 percent and jumped to nearly 20 percent in the recession years of 1982 and 1983. Black unemployment does not level off to its pre-1979 rate until the late 1980s.
Indeed, civil rights enforcement slowed under the Reagan administration, and, like Nixon, Reagan appointed conservative judges to the federal bench, including Antonin Scalia to the Supreme Court. He also nominated Rehnquist to chief justice of the Supreme Court. African Americans were so opposed to the Reagan administration that over three-quarters of blacks reported in an opinion poll that they personally thought that the president was racist (Harris and Williams 1986). Although Democratic presidential administrations might stimulate black participation because of expanding opportunities to have blacks’ policy preferences addressed, Republican presidential administrations could stimulate black participation for a different reason.
Countervailing Forces in African-American Civic Activism, 1973-1994 by Fredrick C. Harris